Knecht: The essence of the term, gear and armament


To understand the stated topic, we will take sources from the German-Bohemian border, especially as it concerns the term - the rhetoric of both states is similar, and even in modern Czech, the word "knecht", apparently, has retained its medieval value ...

According to the classical German dictionary definition, "Knecht" is a German term for a warrior working in the paid service of Mr. It may also be a person in customer relations with landowner, which performs its duty of the service in this way. When describing the German army of the XIV century, the characteristic expression "knights and knechta" is found. Who were these servants, how were they armed and appear in sources?

The German scientist Utense Tespo came to the conclusion that Knight's spears in Germany usually consisted of 3-4 riders, at least one of which was a heavy warrior (knight). The most obvious composition, according to the Tresp, is the following: a heavy knight, armed squire (assistant) (Him. Knappe) and 1-2 riding arrow. According to Czech inventory from the Bavarian Region of the Upper Palatz, the castle vassals of Rothenberg from 1363 to serve to serve Burggraph along with one rigoric squire, in the rhetoric of the Opisi marked as "Knecht". This is really an exceptional list even indicates the equipment of both horsemen. Vassaly had to have a horse or Merin at a price of 30 pounds of geller, which corresponded to about 6 copies of the pennie, that is, a standard price of a good horse. Unlike them, the knechta had to have horses at a price approximately less (16 pounds of gellers). According to the Rothenberg records, the knekti had to wear armor called "Drabgeschire". This term was disassembled by Yan Durdich in connection with the description of the Heb's Earth from 1395. He came to the conclusion that it is modeled armor for the equestrian spear, more complete than simple Armor, but lighter than "Harnasch". The composition of these armor in Frankfurt am Mains 1382 was made up of rolling armor (Pancíř), iron hats, knee pads (nákolenky) and gloves.

Rothenbergian vassal contracts shed a lot of light on the features of the bin service and their Lord. The following details are described in the conrad of Kharder from Rush: after both, he and his knecht will arrive in the castle, they must receive "please" ("Kosten", that is, first of all, food), food and hay for horses . Without permission to leave the castle was not allowed. But, if the horses were not needed, they had to send them home - this is obviously an attempt to save on costs in the event of a long siege of the castle. The service did not necessarily relate to the same castle, because it also stipulates and possible damage that he could have incontected if he and other people from the Castle garrison "came out with the banner of the Czech king against the enemy." If he suffers damage to horses, or he captures, the Czech king undertakes to compensate everything.

In addition to the conrad, it was obliged to appear on the defenses of the castle with his knecht, for example, Oldry Shank from Rayhnec, and Inprich, Count Truhendingen (Truhendingen) for his flax in Rothenberg could not at all come to the castle in the absence of the king, but only send two instead Knechtov, riding and in the above-described weapons. Because it belonged to the Higher Nobility.

Ultimately, the Rotenberg Burggraum has been available to a decent military force, 20 heavy riders and 20 knecht (one can say 20 "copies"), to which another 13 heavy riders and 3 knecht could join.

Some landowners from the Oppia of the Heb Militia of 1395 also arrived at the collection of riding and with their knecht, armed, apparently, in this way.

Ultimately, we can say that according to Bohemian sources from the territory of the upper pyllaz and the Heb area, Knecht was the rider, equipped with Drabshire - armor, which is more easier than the Knight "Harnish", but heavier and richer than ordinary infantry weapons. In other words, you can describe Knecht as an assistant, a squire in a broad sense of the word, or "Lake" in the narrow sense of the word. To a simple infantry, this person did not have, according to the refined sources, no relation. For the infantrymen, there was another German term: "Gewapprent zu fuzz


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  • Knecht , -but, m. mor. The pair cabinet with a shared base on the deck of the vessel, which serves to fix the imposed mooring or towing cable. [Sailors] quickly wrapped the cable for Knechta. L. Sobolev, Pansně.

    [Golle. Knecht]

Source (print version): Dictionary of the Russian language: in 4 tons / wounds, Institute Linguistich. studies; Ed. A. P. Evgenaya. - 4th ed., Ched. - M.: Rus. Yaz.; Poligraphressurs, 1999; (electronic version): Fundamental electronic library

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